CM: Giuseppe Garibaldi (4 July 1807 - 2 June 1882) was an Italian military and political figure. In his twenties, he joined the Carbonari Italian patriot revolutionaries, and had to flee Italy after a failed insurrection. Garibaldi took part in the Uruguayan Civil War leading the Italian Legion, and afterwards returned to Italy as a commander in the conflicts of the Risorgimento. He has been dubbed the "Hero of the Two Worlds" in tribute to his military expeditions in both South America and Europe. He is considered an Italian national hero. § Garibaldi's popularity, his skill at rousing the common people, and his military exploits are all credited with making the unification of Italy possible. He also served as a global exemplar of mid-19 th century revolutionary nationalism and liberalism. But following the liberation of southern Italy from the Neapolitan monarchy, Garibaldi chose to sacrifice his liberal republican principles for the sake of unification. § Garibaldi subscribed to the anti-clericalism common among Latin liberals and did much to circumscribe the temporal power of the Papacy. His personal religious convictions are unclear to historians; in 1882 he wrote "Man created God, not God created Man" yet in his autobiography he is quoted as saying "I am a Christian, and I speak to Christians - I am a true Christian, and I speak to true Christians. I love and venerate the religion of Christ, because Christ came into the world to deliver humanity from slavery..." and "you have the duty to educate the people- educate the people- educate them to be Christians- educate them to be Italians... Viva Italia! Viva Christianity!". § An active Freemason, Garibaldi had little use for rituals, but thought of masonry as a network to unite progressive men as brothers both within nations and as members of a global community. He was eventually elected the grand master of the Grand Orient of Italy. § Giuseppe Garibaldi died at Caprera in 1882, where he was interred. Five ships of the Italian Navy have been named after him, among which a World War II cruiser and the current flagship, the aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi. § Statues of his likeness, as well as the handshake of Teano, stand in many Italian squares, and in other countries around the world. On the top of the Gianicolo hill in Rome, there is a statue of Garibaldi on horse-back. His face was originally turned in the direction of the Vatican (an allusion to his ambition to conquer the Papal States), but after the Lateran Treaty in 1929 the orientation of the statue was changed upon request of the Vatican. § A bust of Giuseppe Garibaldi is prominently placed outside the entrance to the old Supreme Court Chamber in the U.S. Capitol Building in Washington, DC, a gift from members of the Italian Society of Washington. § In a recent book review in The New Yorker (9 & 16 July 2007) of a Garibaldi biography, Tim Parks cites the eminent English historian, A.J.P. Taylor, as saying, "Garibaldi is the only wholly admirable figure in modern history." § English football team Nottingham Forest designed their home kit after the uniform worn by Garibaldi and his men and have worn a variation of this design since being founded in 1865. The Garibaldi biscuit was named after him, as was a style of beard. The Giuseppe Garibaldi Trophy has been awarded annually since 2007 within the Six Nations rugby union framework to the victor of the match between France and Italy, in the memory of Garibaldi. § The present photograph by Gustave Le Gray on 20 July 1860 presents Garibaldi aboard Posilippo bound for Marseilles with an aim to acquire guns and rifles for his patriotic cause. Alexandre Dumas wrote in "Monte Cristo" on 19 January 1860 [#40]: "Garibaldi is a man of fifty-two, with a size above the average. His forehead is broad, his ruddy face, his wonderful oil. He wears a blond hair and tawny starting to gray slightly falling to half of his neck, his beard, he let grow in any abundance, frames a serene and smiling mouth. You feel generous sap run across this strong organization."
[Megakles Rogakos 12/2009]
GARIBLADI, GIUSEPPE Autobiography 1971 Howard Fertig, New York [translated by A. Werner]
GARIBLADI, GIUSEPPE Memoire 1972 Bertani Editore, Verona [edited by Ugoberto Alfessio Grimaldi]
TREVELYAN, GEORGE MACAULAY Garibaldi and the Thousand 1948 Longman, New York
RIDLEY, JOSEPH Garibaldi 1976 Viking, New York
UGOLINI, ROMANO Garibaldi: Genesi di Un Mito 1982 Ateneo, Rome
CECCHINI, EZIO Le Campagne di Garibaldi: 1849 1982 Rivista Militare #105, n.2, p.197-205.
COPPA, FRANK J. The Origins of the Italian Wars of Independence 1992 Longman, London & New York